A Collection of Speech Errors Grouped by Type

(note : this is not a list of all possible types)

 

Production Errors

ANTICIPATIONS

table of contents ---> cable of contents (sound)

sidewalk ---> widewalk (sound)

chocolate chip cookie dough ---> chocolate dough cookie dough (word)

a stitch in time saves nine ---> a stitch in nine saves nine (word)

 

PERSEVERATION

walk the beach ---> walk the beak (sound)

the rule of thumb ---> the rule of rum (sound)

a book read by six people ---> a book read by 6 books

leave no stone unturned ---> leave no stone unstoned

 

EXCHANGE (METATHESIS)

clean and bright ---> glean and pright (voicing feature)

officer ---> ossifer (sound) [aw-fi-ser ---> aw-si-fer]

thunder and lightning ---> lunder and thightning (sound)

chimichangas ---> chichimangas (sound)

slippery crags ---> crippery slags (cluster of sounds)

Are my keys in the door? ---> Are my doors in the key? (word)

I went to Betsy's baby shower yesterday --->

I went to baby's Betsy shower yesterday

 

SHIFTS

What kind of factors did we find ---> What kind of factors do we found... (past tense)

..in case she decides to hit it.. ---> ..in case she decide to hits it..(3rd pers. pl. morpheme)

 

BLENDS

Chomsky + Skinner = Chinner

emergency cardiac ---> emerdiac

few notable ---> fewtable

 

ADDITIONS

soap suds ---> soap studs (sound)

brain cell ---> brain stell (sound)

possible ---> impossible (morpheme)

 

DELETIONS

cucumber ---> coocumber (sound) [kyoo-kum-br --> koo-kum-br]

specific ---> pacific (sound) [spah-si-fik --> pah-si-fik

speech signal ---> peach signal (sound)

incapable ---> capable (morpheme)

 

SUBSTITUTION (word-level)

semantic errors: bring me a pen ---> bring me a pencil

it stays light out late here ---> it stays dark out late here

please set the table ---> please set the chair

phonological errors: condescension ---> condensation

Did you feed the bunny? ---> Did you feed the banana?

 

COMPREHENSION ERRORS

Hillary killed Foster ---> Hillary killed Hoffa

What's the square root of twelve? ---> What's the score of a squirrel?]

Just like Bogie and Bacall ---> Just like boogie in the car (a misheard song lyric)

I have to work tonight ---> I have some dynamite

eyes without a face ---> how's about a date (a misheard song lyric)

 

Examples of Affixes and Stress staying in position:

I went to Betsy's baby shower yesterday --->

I went to baby's Betsy shower yesterday

notice in that one how the possessive "s" morpheme doesn't get exchanged, i.e. you don't get "I went to baby Betsy's shower yesterday."

 

Are my keys in the door? ---> Are my doors in the key? (word)

notice in that last one how the plural"s" morpheme doesn't get exchanged, i.e. you don't get "Are my door in the key?""

 

leave no stone unturned ---> leave no stone unstoned

notice that the past tense morpheme "-ed" also stays in position, as well as the prefix "un".

 

Examples of Phonological Accomodation

an apple a day ---> a pear a day

boiled an egg ---> oiled a beg

In both of the examples above, substituting a consonant-initial word (pear, beg) for a vowel-initial word (apple, egg) causes the initially planned "an" to come out like "a".