Key features:
Abstract:
This thesis has three interrelated goals:
The main goal is an analysis of Czech clitics, units of grammar on the borderline between morphology and syntax with rather peculiar ordering properties both relative to the whole clause and to each other. We examine the actual set of clitics, their rather rigid ordering properties, and finally the properties of so-called clitic climbing. The analysis evaluates previous research, but it also provides new insights, especially in the position of the clitic cluster and in the constraints on clitic climbing. We show that many of the constraints regarding position of the clitic cluster suggested in previous research do not hold. We also argue that cases when clitics do not follow the first constituent are in fact not exceptions in clitic placement but instead unusual frontings. The second goal is the development of a framework within Higher Order Grammar (HOG) supporting a transparent and modular treatment of word order. Unlike previous versions of HOG, we work with signs (containing phonological, syntactic and potentially other information) as actual objects of the grammar. Apart from that, we build on the simplicity and elegance of the pre-formal part of the linearization framework within Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar. Finally, the third objective is to test the result of the second goal by applying it on the results of the first goal. |
BibTeX:
@PHDTHESIS{hana:diss, author = {Hana, Jiri}, title = {Czech Clitics in Higher Order Grammar}, school = {The Ohio State University}, year = {2007}, pdf = {http://ling.osu.edu/~hana/biblio/hana-diss.pdf} } |
BibTeX:
Comming soon. |
BibTeX:
Comming soon. |
BibTeX:
@INPROCEEDINGS{pollard:2007:lcfg, author = {Pollard, Carl}, title = {The Logics of Overt and Covert Movement in a Relational Type-Theoretic Grammar}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Lambda Calculus and Formal Grammar, Nancy, France, September 2007}, year = {to appear} } |
BibTeX:
@INPROCEEDINGS{pollard:2007:nonlocal, author = {Carl Pollard}, title = {Nonlocal dependencies via variable contexts}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the Workshop on New Directions in Type-Theoretic Grammar. ESSLLI 2007}, year = {2007}, editor = {Reinhard Muskens}, address = {Dublin} } |
Abstract: Standard possible worlds semantics has been known from the start to have a problem with granularity: for a wide range of natural-language (NL) entailment patterns, not enough meaning distinctions are available to make predictions consistent with robust intuitions. Though numerous solutions have been proposed, often of great ingenuity and technical sophistication, none of these has gained widespread acceptance. As a result, most semanticists have made a practical decision to work in a framework known to have dubious foundations and leave the foundational problems to mathematical logicians. Here a new approach is proposed which may be simple enough and conservative enough to be practical for working empirical and computational semanticists. More specifically, I show how the use of a higher-order logic with definable subtypes leads to a novel and surprisingly straightforward solution of the granularity problem. I also call attention to a hitherto unnoticed problem in standard approaches to NL semantics having to do with nonprincipal ultrafilters and show why it does not arise under my proposal. The two main technical innovations that drive the proposal are (1) axiomatizing NL entailment as a preorder (as opposed to an order) on the set of (primitive) propositions, and (2) defining worlds as certain sets of propositions (viz. ultrafilters). These innovations provide just the tools we need to develop a formally explicit theory of hyperintensions2, mathematical models of Fregean senses of a finer granularity than the familiar intensions (functions to extensions from worlds, where the worlds in turn are theoretical primitives) of mainstream Kripke/Montague-inspired NL semantics. |
BibTeX:
@ARTICLE{pollard:2007:hyper, author = {Carl Pollard}, title = {Hyperintensions}, journal = {Journal of Logic and Computation}, year = {to appear}, keywords = {semantics} } |
Abstract: We propose some reformulations of binding principle A that build on recent work by Pollard and Xue, and by Runner et al. We then turn to the thorny issue of the status of indices, in connection with the seemingly simpler Principle B. We conclude that the notion of index is fundamentally incoherent, and suggest some possible approaches to eliminating them as theoretical primitives. One possibility is to let logical variables take up the explanatory burden borne by indices, but this turns out to be fraught with difficulties. Another approach, which involves returning to the idea that referentially dependent expressions denote identity functions (as proposed, independently, by Pollard and Sag and by Jacobson) seerms to hold more promise. |
BibTeX:
@INPROCEEDINGS{pollard:2005:binding, author = {Carl Pollard}, title = {Remarks on Binding Theory}, booktitle = {The Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, Department of Informatics, University of Lisbon}, year = {2005}, editor = {Stefan M{\"u}ller}, pages = {561--577}, address = {Stanford}, publisher = {CSLI Publications} } |
Abstract: Higher order grammar (HOG) is a linguistic formalism that aims to combine the advantages of existing constraint-based formalisms (such as HPSG) and proof-theoretic ones (such as categorial grammar) by using higher-order logic (HOL) as the description language; the underlying intuitionistic type system plays a role analogous to that of a categorial type logic, while the classical higher-order term logic serves to impose constraints (analogous to the role played by RSRL in HPSG). Here we focus on semantics, showing how the use of a HOL with definable substypes leads to a novel and surprisingly straightforward solution of the notorious granularity problem about natural-language (NL) meanings. We also call attention to a hitherto unnoticed problem in standard approaches to NL semantics having to do with nonprincipal ultrafilters and show why it does not arise under our proposal. The two main technical innovations that make the proposal work are (1) axiomatization of NL entailment as a preorder (as opposed to an order) on the set of (primitive) propositions, and (2) definition of the set of worlds as a certain subset of the powerset of the set of propositions. |
BibTeX:
@INPROCEEDINGS{pollard:2005:lacl, author = {Carl Pollard}, title = {Hyperintensional semantics in a higher order logic with definable subtypes}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Lambda Calculus, Type Theory, And Natural Language, King's College London}, year = {2005}, pages = {32--45} } |
Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of certain aspects of Czech sentential clitics in Higher Order Grammar. I focus on the relative order of clitics within the clitic cluster. The overall aim of the paper is to show that constraints governing Czech sentential clitics, ‘ though quite complex, can be captured relatively easily within a higher order formalism such as Higher Order Grammar. |
BibTeX:
@INCOLLECTION{hana:2004, author = {Jirka Hana}, title = {{Czech clitics in Higher Order Grammar}}, booktitle = {{Working Papers in Slavic Studies}}, publisher = {Department of Slavic and East European Languages and Literatures}, year = {2004}, address = {Columbus, Ohio}, pdf = {http://www.ling.ohio-state.edu/~hana/biblio/Hana2004-Clitics.pdf} } |
BibTeX:
@INPROCEEDINGS{pollard:2004:cg, author = {Carl Pollard}, title = {Higher-Order Categorial Grammar}, booktitle = {{Proceedings of the International Conference on Categorial Grammars (CG2004)}}, year = {2004}, editor = {M. Moortgat}, address = {Montpellier, France} } |
BibTeX:
@INPROCEEDINGS{pollard:2004:fg, author = {Carl Pollard}, title = {Type-Logical HPSG}, booktitle = {Proceedings of Formal Grammar 2004 (Nancy)}, year = {2004}, editor = {G. Jaeger and P. Monachesi and G. Penn and S. Wintner}, pages = {107--124} } |
Abstract: We show that the standard account of neutrality and coordination in type-logical grammar is untenable. However, when using as our framework a version of Lambek’s categorical grammar with a type theory based on Lambek and Scott’s higher order intuitionistic logic (the internal language of a topos) rather than the Lambek calculus, the account can largely be salvaged. Because of the difficulty of phonologically interpreting coordinated functors of differing directionality we need to handle both phonology and syntax within a single polymorphically typed lambda calculus. |
BibTeX:
@INPROCEEDINGS{pollard:hana:2003, author = {Carl Pollard and Jiri Hana}, title = {Ambiguity, neutrality, and coordination in higher order grammar}, booktitle = {Proceedings of Formal Grammar}, year = {2003}, editor = {Gerhard Jaeger and Paola Monachesi and Gerald Penn and Shuly Wintner}, pages = {125--136}, address = {Wien}, url = {http://www.ling.ohio-state.edu/~hana/biblio/pollard-hana2003-fg-vienna.pdf} } |